The next step for the profession in the UK (p2 - p3)
Who is the therapist who is in the session? (p4 - p7)
A dialogue with Prof. Tony Wigram. Considering Music Therapy Research in a Changing World: a review of publications and their related links with the development of the music therapy profession over 3 decades (p8 - p31)
This article reviews the career and publications of Prof. Tony Wigram. This enables the reader to follow the changing face of British music therapy during the period from its origins to the present day. Through tracking the career of a prominent and internationally renowned UK therapist, it is possible to illustrate the ways in which music therapy has developed since the early days of working towards a professional profile, through the growth of the profile of the profession in a variety of ways, including the long period of work towards national registration. There is consideration of the changes in the topics and nature of publications and research, undertaken in response to the changing environments in which therapist work.
It is anticipated that current practising music therapists will find this review of interest in a number of ways: as a historic record of the growth of the profession seen through the eyes of an active teacher, author and researcher; a resource of great current and future value in terms of the ideas and publications presented across the spread of the UK profession; a springboard from which to view the future.
Transgenerational Interactions in Music Therapy (p32 - p47)
In this essay I will explore aspects of transgenerational transferences from clinical, sociological, political and personal perspectives. Transgenerational interactions contain the unconscious transferences of patterns of behaviour, experiences and emotions to the subsequent generations of a family system. These transferences are symbolically returned to the original persons involved during the therapeutic process.
Aside from transgenerational transferences within the family context we also see collective psycho-traumatic experiences like war, expulsion, mass murder, mass rape and starvation. The "emotional anaesthesia" of the affected person often leads to dissociations and unconscious repetition of psycho traumatic symptons by descendants in the same family.
Through case material I detail how and in what ways both the music therapy and the music therapist can be part of a process that is essentially one of connecting with a humanity that lies in all of us. Theoretical contexts for this include reference to systemic work and the ideas of C.G. Jung that are incorporated into music psychotherapy technique and practice.
The style of the essay is less formal that that of an article and stems from the original keynote presentation that this is based on, as well as my approach to the material. It is intended to provoke thought about work with those traumatized that reminds us of the connections between the individual and their society.
Key Changes Music Therapy: An Extended Pilot Project in an Adult Mental Health Hospital Setting (p48 - p71)
This article introduces an evolving research project based in an NHS adult in-patient mental health setting. The project was set up to assess the longer term benefits of music therapy for these client populations, and to enable and facilitate patient's personal growth. The background to the project and method of evaluation is described, including pre and post therapy evaluations from both patients and staff. Samples of data collected are presented. Recommendations are made for similar projects in music therapy.
This was a collaborative project between the NHS setting and the local charity Key Changes Music Therapy, launched in 2008 to: "...promote the use of music to alleviate behavioural, emotional and physical difficulties, and to protect and promote good health by the use of music. Key Changes also aims to advance the education of the public concerning music as a means of therapy and to carry out and publish research" (Memorandum and articles, registered charity no: 1124102).
The clinical application and relevance of resource-oriented principles in music therapy within an international multicentre study in psychiatry (p72 - p91)
This article is based on an international randomised controlled trial (RCT) in psychiatry investigating the effects of music therapy on difficult to treat psychiatric clients who show a lack of motivation to attend therapy. Previous research has shown that music therapy can be an alternative therapeutic treatment for this client group and this RCT aimed to address this observation.
The RCT was a collaboration between music therapists from different therapeutic cultures - Norway, Austria and Australia. Consequently, the music therapy provided was influenced by different training backgrounds. To provide a common methodological basis the therapists also ensure treatment fidelity, yet first of all have an important impact on the practical work.
Five case vignettes depict how different therapists made use of these principles and in which ways these affected the therapeutic process. It will be shown how these principle serve as a methodological tool for reflecting the therapist's attitude towards the client.
The relevance of the principles in terms of the establishment of a therapeutic relationship as we as the importance of a resource-oriented focus both in long-term and short-term therapeutic settings is highlighted. Finally, it can be assumed that resource-oriented principles exist at least implicitly throughout music therapeutic cultures and that these emphasise the relationship between therapist and client.
Music Therapy: A Perspective from the Humanities, Even Ruud (p92)
Music Therapy and Addictions, Edited by David Aldridge and Jorg Fachner (p95 )
Compiled by John Strange (p97)