Playing at the boundaries: Combining music therapy with other creative therapies in individual work with children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (p3 - p11)
This paper describes an integrative approach to working therapeutically with individual children who have emotional and behavioural difficulties which combines music therapy with other creative therapies (particularly play therapy and dramatherapy). The development of this way of working in response to spontaneous interactions initiated by children is described, as are its underlying person-centred principles. The advantages of, and potential objections to, such an approach are considered. A case study is used to illustrate the approach.
"Why can't we be friends?" An exploration of the concept of 'friendship' within client - music therapist relationships (p12 - p22)
This article describes a research project undertaken to explore the concept of friendship in the context of music therapy relationships. An extensive review of the music therapy literature is presented, drawing also on related disciplines including psychoanalysis, philosophy, musicology and sociology. Data from interviews with three music therapists, practising across a range of clinical contexts, is presented in categories, followed by a discussion of the findings and their implications. Issues arising include boundaries, the balance between professional and personal dynamics, the role of music in intimacy, and trust between professionals.
It is concluded that friendship is a complex issue, but that personal dynamics such as friendship are often present in clinical relationships at different times and in different ways. Boundaries and ethical rules are considered fundamentally important. They are viewed as flexible rather that fixed, depending on the clinical setting and the client's needs.
The study also concludes that friendship and related concepts such as love and sexuality may be taboo subjects within the profession. It seems that this may be due to anxieties about professional discreditation as well as more general anxieties within society. The lack of open discussion on these subjects can then give rise to therapist anxieties about intimacy with clients. This is seen as an issue particularly affecting inexperienced or trainee music therapists.
The role of rhythm in the development, maintenance and management of stereotypic behaviours. A review of non-musical literature (p23 - p27)
Rhythm has long been used by music therapists and others as a means of redirecting individuals with specific difficulties towards effective learning and social engagement. There is a wide literature stemming neither from musicology nor from music therapy which considers the role of rhythm within natural child development. This review describes how rhythmic processing has been conceptualised as facilitating learning in the mainstream child. It is widely postulated that rhythmical movements, typically thought to promote physical development, can present inappropriately, resulting in maladaptive distraction to a child's development. These actions, referred to as 'stereotypic behaviours', are discussed in relation to a number of rhythm-based strategies suggested in the literature as having a role in minimising the presentation of such behaviours. The management of stereotypic behaviours, specifically in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), is also discussed.
Dialogue - Music Therapy in Special Education: Do we need More Evidence? A response to Katrina McFerran and Jennifer Stephenson (p28 - p29)
Music Therapy Methods in Neurorehabilitation: A Clinician's Manual - Reviewed by Wendy Magee (p30)
Receptive Methods in Music Therapy, Techniques and Clinical Applications for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators and Students - Reviewed by Catherine O'Leary (p31)