Measurement Problems in Applied Music Therapy Research (p6 - p10)
This paper concentrates on so-called 'applied research' - that is the primary interest is in evaluating the effects of music therapy on our clients. The discussion is not about research on theoretical issues and processes of music therapy - although clearly these are important - but more concerned with the 'naive' question, 'Does it work?' The aim is to provide a brief conceptual analysis of what we mean by this question and look at some of the problems that are encountered in trying to answer it.
In particular the focus is on some of the problems of measuring response to music therapy. This will be examined in the context of questions of experimental design, although clearly not all aspects of designing and interpreting experiments can be covered in one paper. Especial consideration will be given to how failure to solve some of the measurement problems can invalidate the conclusions drawn from experiments.
Stereotypic Movements and Music Therapy (p11 - p16)
Three main objectives are pursued with this study. The first is to summarise some current ideas about the origin and nature of stereotypic movements. The second is to present some music-therapeutic approaches to the phenomenon: different examples with a behaviouristic background are given; an educational approach is touched on; and Nordoff-Robbins' work is represented with a practical example. Thirdly, I discuss a case from my personal experience. My practical experience with stereotypies in music therapy was at the time of writing limited to one child. I am grateful to her for encouraging me to take some steps into a world that is, at first sight, quite bizarre and not very attractive, but one that holds some valuable possibilities for music therapeutic work.
The Influence of Jung's Psychology on the Therapeutic Use of Music (p17 - p21)
This paper explores the work of two innovative music therapists and the way in which their individual approaches relate to the theories of C.F.Jung. Firstly, the author describes how Margaret Tilly, a concert pianist, once gave Jung a session of passive music therapy explaining that she begins to play composed music in rapport with the patient's dominant function, and gradually evokes the inferior function's qualities also using the 'masculine' and 'feminine' aspects of music. This convinced the otherwise sceptical Jung that 'from now on music should be an essential part of every analysis'.
Secondly, she examines Mary Priestley's work in which the patient improvises with the therapist to make contact with feelings and unconscious material: e.g. in dreams.
The author speaks from direct experience of her analytical music therapy intertherapy training with Priestley. She quotes several passages from Jung's work to explain how this therapy accords with the need to contact the image behind the emotions, and to accept the ethical obligation presented by the dreams and the need to make concrete the experiences. She finishes with a call to musicians and therapists to be 'more aware of the creative power of music to make us whole'.
Music Therapy in a General Hospital's Psychiatric Unit - a 'pilot' evaluation of an eight week programme (p 22 - p27)
Within Great Britain music therapy is developing a presence in the field of mental health. There is a history of work within the large institutions and there are present moves to develop more work in community based day hospitals and units. This paper charts the setting-up of short period of eight sessions for a group attending a unit based within a general hospital. Positive results from a simple evaluation from both clients and staff point to the need for further studies to be set up when more detailed questions can be addressed.
The Role of the Music Therapist in Special Education (p28 - 31)
In a school for children with severe learning difficulties, a full time music therapist may be asked to perform general educational, pastoral and administrative duties. This article examines the impact of these additional responsibilities on therapeutic work, and discusses some possible objections to stepping outside the strictly therapeutic role. The author then outlines ways in which he has found that a wider involvement in the work of the school can enhance the therapist's effectiveness. He concludes that these advantages outweigh the supposed disadvantages.
Music Therapy for the Developmentally Disabled by Edith Hillman Boxhill - Reviewed by Amelia Oldfield (p32)
Music and Health edited by Even Ruud - Reviewed by Tony Wigram (p32)